Spondylolisthesis can have various origins.
Genetics: hereditary congenital vertebrae malformation having thin bone structure, which can be aggravated with rapid growth.
Overuse: Intensive sport activities that put extreme pressure on the spine (gymnastic, weight lifting) or that involve hyperextension of the lower spine (baseball, golf, cricket).
Generally, the causes are divided into the following types:
Type I congenital, abnormal development of the facet joints that facilitate forward translation of thevertebrae in adolescence
Type II isthmic spondylolisthes is caused by a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis
Type III degeneration of the facet joints due to arthropathy in older people
Type IV traumatic injury to the facet joints or pars interarticularis
Type V Instability of the facet joints of iatrogenic origin (facetectomy surgery).
Spondylolysis is essentially a stress fracture caused by repeated strains to the lower back.