Shoulder dislocation and luxation


A shoulder dislocation is most often related to a strong force pulling the shoulder upwards, outwards or from an extreme external rotation of the humerus. The pathology is common in young men between 20 and 30 years and elderly women above 60 years of age. It can be caused by a fall, a force applied on the outstretched arm or by a direct impact on the shoulder area as it may happen in road traffic accidents. In sport, a shoulder dislocation may arise by a forceful throwing, lifting or hitting. A shoulder dislocation can also occur without trauma while performing simple movements such as outstretching the arm or turning over in bed when lying on the shoulder. This type of dislocation mostly involves both shoulders, does not cause major pain and is linked to excessive elasticity of the ligaments in some individuals resulting in joint laxity. It can also depend on the abnormality in the sequence in which the muscles of the shoulder are activated with movement. Some people can even dislocate the shoulder voluntarily.