Trigger finger and trigger thumb consist in the altered movement causing an involuntary catching when flexing the finger towards the palm. In severe cases the fingers are locked in a flexed position and cannot be straightened.
Trigger finger is a pathology of the flexor tendon, which connects the phalanges to the muscles in the palmar side of the forearm. The tendon is aligned with the finger and fixed by lateral ligaments named pulleys. The tenosynovium sheath encloses the tendon to facilitate its gliding when the finger is extended or flexed.
In trigger finger the irritated flexor tendon and pulleys become swollen occasionally leading to the formation of a nodule, which limits or blocks the sliding of the tendon during movement. A typical catching and popping noise can be heard during grasping function.
Fractures of the humerus shaft can display various patterns: transverse, oblique, spiral, and comminuted. In addition they are differentiated depending on whether the fracture is displaced or undisplaced, relative to the loss of bone alignment and closed or open fracture. The AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) Foundation, an international organisation founded in Switzerland, focussing on research and education for the management of orthopaedic injuries), is one of most used systems available to characterise humerus shaft fractures. According to the AO humerus shaft fractures are divided into their level of comminution:
Type A - No comminution
Type B - Presence of butterfly fragment (wedge-shaped fragment of bone
Type C - Comminution
The irritation of the flexor tendon causing trigger finger is mostly a consequence of overuse of the hand; however the aetiology of this pathology remains unknown. The condition is more frequent in women and the adult/aged population. Apart from repetitive grasping/gripping function other causes leading to trigger finger include:
Tear to the flexor tendon
Infection of the synovium
Congenital condition predisposing to tendon nodule formation
Although risk factors leading to trigger finger have not been identified, the following factors may pose a risk:
Age between 40 and 60 years
Occupational activities: repetitive gripping of power tools
Prolonged driving (grasping the steering wheel)
Daily activities: writing, carrying bags and briefcases
Medical conditions: diabetes increases four times the risk, rheumatoid arthritis
The symptoms arising from a trigger finger are:
Pain at the nodule site when flexing and extending the finger
Clicking sensation when flexing the finger
Impaired finger extension
Movement restrictions (grasping) especially after inactivity
Blockage of the finger in a bent position
The diagnosis of trigger finger does not require special tests or X-rays. Medical examination is based on:
Observation of the hand anatomy
Palpation to detect the presence of nodules at metacarpo-phalangeal or proximal-phalangeal joints
Assessing changes in finger flexion/extension, stiffness, pain level when opening/closing the fist 10 times
Audible clicking/popping noises
Conservative treatment is the most common and efficacious management of trigger finger. if the condition has not been protracted over four months, physiotherapy and occupational therapy will restore successfully finger function. Conservative management also include:
Immobilisation of the fingers with a splint until the inflammatory condition has subsided
Administration of NSAIDs
Local steroid injection
Surgery is required in case of severe and prolonged trigger finger symptoms. It consists in the resection of the pulleys at the nodule zone to free the tendon during movement. This an outpatient procedure performed under local anaesthesia. Methods such as endoscopic surgery and percutaneous tendon release are available providing a faster postoperative healing.
Complications following a surgical treatment of trigger finger are:
Limited straightening of the finger (insufficient tendon release)
Hyperextension of the finger (excessive tendon release)
Ongoing trigger finger
A physical or occupational therapist will guide stretching movements to restore flexibility and physical exercises to strengthen the fingers and re-acquire fine motor control. Physiotherapy is recommended for 6 weeks. Full recovery after surgery can take up to 6 months. Advice on modifying daily activities is provided to avoid excessive stress on the affected tendon.
There are no specific measures to prevent trigger finger. The best strategy is to avoid excessive strain of the flexor tendon during occupational and daily activities.