Mallet finger
Mallet finger is also known as baseball finger due to the high incidence of the pathology in baseball players

Definition

A mallet finger is the inability to straighten the distal phalange of a finger. This condition may lead to a deformity of the phalange, which remains permanently bent towards the palm.

 

A mallet finger causes the inability to straighten the last phalange of a finger

Pathology

A mallet finger is the result of the rupture of the finger extensor tendon at the distal inter-phalangeal (DIP) joint. This condition is also called baseball finger, as it is common in baseball players. Sometimes the rupture of the finger extensor tendon occurs in combination with a fracture of the distal phalange. Consequently the patient is unable to completely straighten the finger.

 

Classification

Fractures of the humerus shaft can display various patterns: transverse, oblique, spiral, and comminuted. In addition they are differentiated depending on whether the fracture is displaced or undisplaced, relative to the loss of bone alignment and closed or open fracture. The AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) Foundation, an international organisation founded in Switzerland, focussing on research and education for the management of orthopaedic injuries), is one of most used systems available to characterise humerus shaft fractures. According to the AO humerus shaft fractures are divided into their level of comminution:

Type A - No comminution

Type B - Presence of butterfly fragment (wedge-shaped fragment of bone

Type C - Comminution

A hard hit of a ball onto the straighten finger can lead to the rupture of the finger extensor tendon

Causes

A mallet finger is more commonly observed in ball sport injuries but can also arise from daily activities that do not require a strong force. It typically ensues when the ball hits the straight finger forcing it to bend forward.

Baseball is one of the ball sports which increases the risk for a mallet finger

Risk factors

A mallet finger is most common amongst players of ball games such as:

Baseball

Basketball

Netball

Football

Rugby

Daily activities

A patient is unable to straighten the index finger

Symptoms

The symptoms arising from a mallet finger are:

Sudden pain at time of injury

Swelling around the DIP joint

Bruising

Blood accumulation within the nail bed

Nail loss

Finger stiffness

Inability to completely extend the finger

Typical finger deformity

X-rays of the hand show a clear deformity of the ring and index fingers at the distal inter-phalangeal joints

Diagnosis

The medical history focuses on the mechanisms of injury leading to mallet finger. Medical examination is usually sufficient for the diagnosis and includes: 

Detection of finger deformity

Palpation to the region of interest

Test changes in the range of movement of the finger distal phalanges, both passively and actively

X-rays in case of suspected avulsion fracture of the phalange.

Treatment

A splint may be used for conservative treatment following an injury to the extensor tendon

Nonoperative treatment

Management of the mallet finger is normally achieved conservatively if no fracture or other complications are present. Conservative treatment includes the immobilisation with a splint to keep the finger in full extension for up to 6 – 8 weeks and another 6 weeks of night use of the splint. Additional treatments include:

Ice pads

Administration of NSAIDs

Painkillers

Surgery may include the fixation of the fractured phalange associated with extensor tendon injury and repair of the rupture tendon by reattaching it to the bone

Surgical treatment

Surgery is employed when the rupture of the extensor tendon is associated with joint misalignment or with the presence of a phalange fracture.

Surgical splinting: is recommended in case of severe deformity or when the patient requires an immediate use of the hand. A metal pin is inserted into the DIP joint to achieve an internal finger immobilisation. This facilitates earlier use of the finger. The pin is kept in situ until the tendon has healed for approximately 6 – 8 weeks.

Extensive surgery is performed when mallet finger occurs concomitant to rupture of the extensor tendon or phalange fractures with the following methods:

Surgical tendon repair: the tendon is sutured or repaired with a tissue graft.

Fracture fixation: internal fixation of the bony fragment with screws and wires is a common approach to repair the fractures of the phalanges associated with extensor tendon rupture.

Finger joint fusion: fusion of the phalanges can be performed as an alternative to internal fixation in both mallet finger and swan neck deformity.

Complications

The most common complications following either conservative or surgical treatment of mallet finger include:

Skin damage due to prolonged splinting

Stiffness at the DIP joint

Infection following surgery

 

Gentle finger stretch exercises help restoring flexibility at the inter-phalangeal joints

Rehabilitation

A physical or occupational therapist guides the patient through an exercise plan to restore flexibility and strength of the finger affected by mallet pathology. Education will inform how to modify activities to avoid recurrent finger injuries. Additional rehabilitative therapy includes:

Joint mobilisation

Stretches

Electrotherapy

Individual finger taping or taping two adjacent fingers together can prevent tendon injuries

Prevention

Prevention of a mallet finger aims at reducing the risk of future injuries to the extensor tendons by protecting fingers during physical activities and sport. Common strategies are:

Finger splinting

Finger taping