A fracture of the coccyx involves a break of the lowest portion of the spine also named tailbone, which curves into the pelvic ring.
The coccyx is a small triangular bony structure formed by 3 to 5 bones held together by ligaments and joints. There are differences in its structure from person to person. The bones of the coccyx are not fused but kept together by ligaments and joints allowing minimal movement. The coccyx is connected to the sacrum by a fibrocartilagineous joint (sacro-coccygeal symphysis).
A traumatic fracture to the coccyx results into a pathological condition defined coccydynia (pain, discomfort) that is common to coccyx dislocation and bruising. Coccyx injuries are more frequent in women as the broader conformation of pelvis exposes the tailbone outwards.
The fractures of the distal radius are defined with various classification systems including the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthese) system. They relate to the mechanisms of injury and bone fracture characteristics and provide a guideline towards suitable treatments. The most frequent types of distal radius fracture are:
Colles’ fracture is the most common type of fracture in which the distal bone of the radius tilts upwards following an outer bending of the wrist as it happens when falling on the hand
Smith’s fracture or reversed Colles’ fracture occurs when the distal portion of the radius tilts downwards following the inward bending of the wrist
Barton fracture is an intra-articular fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of the radiocarpal joint
Chauffeur fracture is an intra-articular fracture of the radial styloid process, also known as Hutchinson fracture or backfire fracture.
Intra-articular fracture extends to the wrist joint (or articulation)
Extra-articular fracture is located outside of the wrist joint
Open fracture when bone fragments perforate the skin
Comminuted fracture when the bone breaks into multiple fragments
Non-displaced when the anatomical alignment of the bone is maintained or displaced when the bone fragments move apart.
Melone’s classification describes the characteristics of intra-articular fractures of the radius:
i Stable fracture
ii Unstable "die-punch"
iii "Spike" fracture
iv Split fracture
v Explosion injuries
These fractures are divided into:
Anterior pillar (not weight bearing part of joint)
Posterior pillar (often associated with dislocation of the hip including the weight bearing part of joint)
Comminuted involving both column type
Sacral / coccygeal fractures
The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone formed by 5 fused vertebrae, which provide a posterior wall to the pelvic ring. At each side of the sacrum, the ala structures articulate with the ilium bones forming the sacro-iliac joints. Sacral fractures are usually parallel to the spine and can involve the ala. Less frequently sacral fractures may display an “H” shape, including a transversal fracture uniting both sides of the sacrum. Three zones are described where sacral fractures can occur that are along vertical lines relative to the alignment of the foramina. Sacral fractures may result in sacral instability and require treatment via sacroplasty (injection of bone glue into the fracture). Surgery is necessary in case of associated neurological symptoms.
Fractures of the coccyx involve the tailbone, the terminal portion of the spine situated below the sacrum formed by 3 to 5 fused vertebrae. Coccyx fractures occur when falling on a seated position. They are more common in elderly women and seldom require surgical treatment.
Coccygeal fractures most commonly ensue in various forms of trauma including:
· Fall into a seating position
· Direct blow (contact sports)
· High pressure on the lower spine when sitting during sport (rowing, cycling, horse riding)
· Growth of bone spurs
· Unknown causes
The risk factors for a fracture to the coccyx are:
· Older age
· Female gender
· Reduced muscle mass in the buttocks
· Contact sports
The symptoms resulting from a fracture of the coccyx include:
· Pain in the buttock area becoming stronger when sitting, during defecation and intercourse (women)
The history of the traumatic injury or other events possibly leading to the fracture of the coccyx is usually sufficient to form a diagnosis during medical examination. However, X-ray taken in seated and standing position confirm the presence of a fracture and the occurrence of associated injuries to other levels of the spine. Occasionally a diagnosed fracture of the coccyx is confused with a coccyx dislocation. Rectal and neurologic examination may be carried out if a coccygeal fracture, dislocation and nerve damage are suspected.
A fracture to the coccyx is rarely treated with surgery unless there are severe complications involving the local nerves. Conservative management is standard care for this pathology and is mostly focused on one or two days of bed rest and pharmacological pain control. The prognosis is of approximately 4 to 6 weeks. Additional treatments include:
· Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
· Analgesics (oral administration or local injection)
· Laxatives (reduce pain during defecation)
· Steroid injection locally (seldom)
· Single local nerve block injection
It is very rare to treat the coccyx fracture with surgery. This is only recommended in a severe traumatic destruction of the coccyx or in case of prolonged pain. This procedure involves the removal of the coccyx or coccygectomy.
A fracture to the coccyx may require a couple of days of bed rest. There are no specific exercises for the rehabilitation. General rehabilitative directions include:
· Ice/heat treatment
· Antiinflammatory therapy (NSAIDs)
· Use of inflated ring or cushion when sitting to alleviate pressure to the coccyx
· Calcium and vitamin D administration
· Walking – general fitness
The main prevention is avoidance of falls with the use of supporting devices and reduction of falling hazards at home and work place. Prevention of osteoporosis with the administration of the bisphosphonate group of drugs, calcium and vitamin D.